Important Places during India's Freedom Struggle - I

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1. Chauri Chaura

The place in Uttar Pradesh, near Gorakhpur which came into news when a frenzied mob set fire to a police station killing 23 people inside. Gandhiji had given a call for non-cooperation movement in 1920. Since the movement was to be non-violent, Gandhiji was deeply hurt by the violence of the people and hastily called off the non-cooperation movement. The incident occurred on 04 Feb 1922.

2. Kakori

The place in Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh. The famous Kakori Train Dacoity took place on 09 Aug 1925. Revolutionaries led by Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Chandrasekhar Azad and others stopped a train carrying British government money. The train was looted of the treasury by the revolutionaries who needed the money to run the freedom struggle.

3. Chittagong

Located in present day Bangladesh, the place is well-known for Chittagong Armoury Raid. The raid was led by revolutionary Surya Sen. Surya Sen had organised a group of young revolutionaries and together they planned to lay a siege to police armouries in Chittagong. On 18 April 1930, Surya Sen alongwith his troop captured the police armoury, cut off telegraph lines and hoisted the National Flag.

4. Champaran

In the year 1917, Gandhiji began his active involvement in India's politics from this place in Bihar. At Champaran, the farmers were being forced to grow unremunerative indigo plant which yielded blue dye. Gandhiji was called upon by some activists to solve the problem of the cultivators. Gandhiji for the first time used the tool of non-violence. He toured the villages and compelled the government to pass the Champaran Agraria Law in 1918.

5. Dandi

A small village on the coast of Gulf of Khambhat, Arabian Sea. The place shot to world fame when Gandhiji led the famous Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad on 12 March 1930. On the 24th day, i.e. 06 April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi and made salt as a protest against the tax imposed on salt by the British. The incident also marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Recently Time magazine listed the Salt Satyagraha in its list of Top 10 Most Influential Protests of all time.

6. Port Blair

The British had constructed the huge Cellular Jail on the island. Indian prisoners, especially political ones, were sent to the jail, the punishment being popularly known as Kala Pani. Sachindranath Sanyal, the author of Bandi Jeevan, and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar were such freedom fighters who were sent to the Cellular Jail. Also, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose hoisted the National Flag on 30 Dec 1943 and declared it to be the headquarters of the Provisional Government of India.

7. Bardoli

In 1925, the taluka of Bardoli in Gujarat suffered from floods and famine, causing crop production to suffer and leaving farmers facing great financial troubles. However, the Government had raised the tax rate by 30% that year. The farmers protested in vain. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in consultation with Gandhiji, organised the Bardoli Satyagraha in which the farmers refused to pay the taxes despite the threat of confiscation of property. In the end the Government relented and enhanced taxes were withdrawn. Vallabhbhai Patel earned the title of Sardar from this Satyagraha.

8. Amritsar

Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, is well known for the massacre of innocent and peaceful gathering of people who had gathered in the park for a public meeting. On 13 April 1919 (Baisakhi Day), a crowd of about 20,000 people had gathered in the small park, when troops surrounding the park were ordered by Brig Gen REH Dyer to open fire. The official figures put the casualty at 379, but unofficial figures have been much higher. Michael O'Dyer the Lt. Governor of Punjab was shot dead by Udham Singh 21 years later. In protest against the incident Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood bestowed upon him by the British in 1915.

Select the right answer

1. Place associated with indigo farmers' struggle

2. Who carried out the Chittagong Armoury Raid?

3. Dandi march began from -

4. Jallianwala Bagh incident occurred on -

5. Chauri Chaura incident ended the -

6. Vallabhbhai Patel earned the title of Sardar for his role in