British Governor Generals/Viceroys in India

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Governor General/Viceroy Period Points to remember
Warren Hastings 1774 - 1785 First Governor General in India. (He was the appointed as the Governor General of Fort William, but he exercised control over East India Company officials all over India.) He was impeached in England for his wrong-doings, namely The Rohilla War, Trial and execution of Nand Kumar, Case of Raja Chait Singh and Begums of Oudh.
Lord Cornwallis 1786 - 1793 Permanent Settlement, an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land was introduced during his period.
Lord Wellesley 1798 - 1825 He introduced the Subsidiary Alliance, under which the Indian ruler agreed to keep British forces in his territory. The first state to accept the Subsidiary Alliance was the State of Hyderabad.
Lord William Bentick 1828 - 1835 First to be designated as the Governor General of India in 1828. He outlawed the practice of Sati and also introduced English education in India.
Lord Dalhousie 1848 - 1856 He introduced the infamous 'Doctrine of Lapse'. He also brought Railways and Telegraph to India. He is also known as the maker of modern India.
Lord Canning 1856 - 1862 He was the Governor General during the mutiny of 1857. He was appointed the first Viceroy after the war.
Lord Mayo 1869 - 1872 He was the Viceroy of India, who was killed by a convict in the Andaman Islands. The first census of India was conducted which did not however include some territories in India.
Lord Lytton 1876 - 1880 The Delhi durbar or the Imperial Durbar in which Queen Victoria was proclaimed Kaisar-i-Hind was held during his period on 01 Jan 1877. Vernacular Press Act, 1878, for better control of Indian newspapers was passed during his tenure.
Lord Rippon 1880 - 1884 He introduced the dual system of governance. The first complete and synchronous census of British Territories in India was conducted in 1881 during his period. He was also associated with Ilbert Bill which sought to allow Indian judges to try British offenders. He is hailed as the Father of Local Self Government in India.
Lord Dufferin 1884 - 1888 The Indian National Congress was formed during his period.
Lord Curzon 1899 - 1905 Partition of Bengal and launch of Swadeshi Movement occurred during his period.
Lord Hardinge 1910 - 1916 The Capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi during his tenure in 1911. George V, the King of England visited India to attend the Delhi durbar in 1911. An assassination attempt was made on his life by Rash Bihari Bose and others.
Lord Chelmsford 1916 - 1921 The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy of 1919 occured during his period. Montague Chelmsford reforms, Rowlatt Act, Khilafat movement are other events associated with his period.
Lord Reading 1921 - 1926 Chauri Chaura incident occurred during his period. Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned for the first time in India.
Lord Irwin 1926 - 1931 His period is associated with First Round Table Conference, Simon Commission, Gandhi Irwin pact and the famous Dandi March.
Lord Willingdon 1931 - 1936 Second and Third Round Table Conferences were held during his period. Communal award was given by British PM Ramsay Macdonald and the Poona Pact between Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar was signed during his period.
Lord Linlithgow 1936 - 1943 Cripps Mission visited India and the Quit India resolution was passed during his tenure.
Lord Wavell 1943 - 1947 Simla conference and Cabinet mission are associated with his period.

Governor General and Viceroy

Governor-General: The Rgulating Acting of 1773 established the position of Governor-General who became the head of the colonial administration in India. Initially, the Governor-General had authority over the presidencies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay. The Governor-General was responsible for the overall governance of British territories in India and represented the British Crown. The Governor-General had executive, legislative, and financial powers and was assisted by a council.
Viceroy: The term "Viceroy" was used to describe the Governor-General of India after the Government of India Act of 1858. This act transferred the administration of India from the British East India Company to the British Crown, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The British monarch, as the titular head of state, appointed a Viceroy to represent the Crown in India. The Viceroy held greater powers and authority compared to the earlier Governor-General. The Viceroy was the highest-ranking official and had control over the entire British Indian administration. The Viceroy was advised by an Executive Council and had the power to make important decisions, such as those related to defense, external affairs, and the civil service.


Select the right answer

1. Who introduced the Subsidiary Alliance during the British rule in India?

2. The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by which Governor General?

3. Who was the Viceroy of India during the Partition of Bengal in 1905?

4. Who was the Viceroy when Gandhiji led Dandi March in 1930?

5. Who was the Viceroy when Quit India Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942?

6. Who introduced the concept of Permanent Settlement with landlords of Bengal?

7. Who was the Viceroy of India in 1919 when the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy occurred?

8. Who was appointed the first Viceroy of India after the 1857 war of independence?

9. Who was known as the Father of Local Self Government in India?

10. Which Viceroy was killed by a convict in the Andaman Islands?