|Primary Nutrients||Secondary Nutrients||-|
|Hydrogen||Hydrogen is derived mostly from water. It is necessary for building sugars and other molecules for plant energy. In photosynthesis and cellular respiration, hydrogen acts as an electron carrier, participating in redox reactions that are fundamental to energy transfer.|
|Oxygen||Oxygen is vital for the process of cellular respiration, where energy is released by breaking down organic molecules. This energy is then utilized for various metabolic activities within the plant.|
Macronutrients are essential elements that plants require in relatively large quantities for their growth and development. The importance of macronutrients and signs of deficiency are given below in brief:
1. Nitrogen (N): It is the most vital of all macronutrients required by plants. It is a crucial component of amino acids, proteins, chlorophyll, and nucleic acids. It is essential for plant growth, photosynthesis, and the development of enzymes and hormones.
Signs of Deficiency: Yellowing of leaves (chlorosis) starting from older leaves, stunted growth.
2. Phosphorus (P): Phosphorus is involved in energy transfer and storage (ATP), cell division, and the formation of DNA and RNA. It is critical for root development, flowering, and fruiting.
Signs of Deficiency: Purplish or darkened leaves, delayed maturity, poor root development.
3. Potassium (K): Potassium regulates water uptake, osmotic pressure, and enzyme activation. It plays a vital role in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and the transport of nutrients within the plant.
Signs of Deficiency: Yellowing at leaf margins, weak stems, poor disease resistance.
4. Calcium (Ca): Calcium is a structural component of cell walls, contributing to cell integrity and strength. It also facilitates nutrient uptake and plays a role in cell division.
Signs of Deficiency: Stunted root growth, distorted young leaves, blossom end rot in fruits.
5. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium is a central component of chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis. It also activates many enzymes involved in nutrient metabolism.
Signs of Deficiency: Yellowing between leaf veins (interveinal chlorosis), especially in older leaves.
6. Sulfur (S): Sulfur is a component of amino acids, vitamins, and coenzymes. It is essential for protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and chlorophyll formation.
Signs of Deficiency: Yellowing of young leaves, stunted growth, reduced seed and fruit production.
|Horticulture||The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.|
|Floriculture||The cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants.|
|Viticulture||Viticulture is the science, production and study of grapes.|
|Olericulture||Olericulture is the science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food.|
|Arboriculture||Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.|
|Pomology||Science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.|
|Phycology||Science that deals with the study of algae or seaweeds.|
|Mycology||Science that deals with the study of fungi.|
|Paleobotany||Science that deals with the study of fossil plants.|