24 Important Medical Breakthroughs

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8 Important Medical Discoveries

Circulation of blood (1628)William Harvey
Chloroform (1847)Simpson and Harrison
X-Rays (1895)Wilhelm Roentgen
Malaria Parasite (1897)Ronald Ross
Insulin (1921)Frederick Banting and Charles H Best
Penicillin (1928)Alexander Fleming
HIV Virus (1983)Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Jean-Claude Chermann in Paris and Rober Gallo in USA.

Interesting Facts

  • Ronald Ross, was an Indian born British doctor. He was born in Almora (Uttarakhand). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902.
  • Wilhelm Roentgen was the first to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
  • In 1923, Frederick Banting and Charles Best sold the patent of insulin to University of Toronto for just $1, which is considered one of the most selfless acts in medical history.
  • Alexander Fleming, who discovered the first antibiotic, Penicillin, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945 along with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

12 Important Vaccine Discoveries

Vaccine Discoverer
Small Pox Edward Jenner
Rabies Louis Pasteur
Influenza Thomas Francis Jr.
Measles Maurice Hilleman
Mumps Maurice Hilleman
Chicken Pox Maurice Hilleman
Meningitis Maurice Hilleman
Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Maurice Hilleman
Pneumonia Maurice Hilleman
Rotavirus Paul Offit
Rubella Stanley Plotkin
Polio Jonas Salk

The First Vaccine

The first vaccine in the world was developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. He created the smallpox vaccine by inoculating a young boy with cowpox, which proved to protect the boy against smallpox.

Maurice Hilleman

Maurice Hilleman, American microbiologist made the most number of vaccines. He developed more than 40 vaccines throughout his career, including vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A and B, chickenpox, pneumonia, meningitis, and many others. Hilleman's contributions to vaccine development have saved countless lives and his work has been instrumental in the eradication and control of many infectious diseases.

10 Important Discoveries of Vitamins

Vitamin Discoverer
Vitamin A Elmer V McCollum and Marguerite Davis
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Casimir Funk
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) DT Smith and EG Hendrick
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Conrad Elvehje
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Paul Gyorgy
Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Paul Gyorgy
Vitamin B9 (Folate) Lucy Wills
Vitamin C A. Hoist and T. Froelich
Vitamin D Edward Mellanby
Vitamin E Katherine Bishop and Herbert Evans

4 Important Organ Transplants


The first kidney transplant was done in 1954 by a team of doctors led by Dr. Joseph Murray in the United States.


The first liver transplant was conducted in 1963 by Dr. Thomas Starzl in the United States.


The first lung transplant took place in 1963 by Dr. James Hardy in the United States.


The first successful heart transplant was performed in 1967 by Dr. Christiaan Barnard in South Africa.



Select the right answer

1. Vaccine for Polio was discovered by

2. Circulation of blood was discovered by

3. Simpson and Harrison are known for the discovery of

4. The first vaccine was developed by

5. Wilhelm Roentgen was awarded the Nobel for his discovery of

6. Most prolific discoverer of vaccines

7. Frederick Banting and Charles Best are known for their discovery of