Soils and Crops


Soils: Facts to remember

Fact to remember Type of Soil
The soil most common in Indo-gangetic plainsAlluvial
The soil which swells when wet and develops cracks when dryBlack
The soil which owes its colour to oxides of ironLaterite
The soil which requires least use of fertilisersAlluvial
The soil which requires least tillingBlack
The kind of soil which is treated with gypsum to make it suitable for croppingAlkaline soil
The soil which is poor in soluble saltsLaterite
The soil which is rich in surface accumulation of organic matterPeaty soil
The soil which is most suitable for cultivation of cottonBlack


Crops : Points to remember

Point to remember Crop
The crop which requires water-logging for its cultivationRice
The crop best suited in areas where rain falls only for two monthsPulses
The ideal crop for areas with rainfall above 200 cm and sloping hillsTea
The crop which requires a large amount of rainfall and no standing waterTea


Crops : Largest Producers

Feature State
The largest producer of paddy in IndiaWest Bengal
The lagest producer of wheat in IndiaUttar Pradesh
The lagest producer of sugarcane in IndiaUttar Pradesh
The lagest producer of groundnut in IndiaGujarat
The largest producer of tea in IndiaAssam
The largest producer of coffee in IndiaKarnataka
The largest producer of jute in IndiaWest Bengal
The largest producer of tobacco in IndiaAndhra Pradesh
The largest producer of bananas in IndiaTamilnadu
The largest producer of saffron in IndiaJammu & Kashmir
The largest producer of onion in IndiaMaharashtra
The largest producer of black pepper in IndiaKerala
The largest producer of cotton in IndiaGujarat
The largest producer of bamboos in IndiaAssam
The largest producer of litchis in IndiaBihar


Crops in India

The crop which is sown in largest area in IndiaRice (43.9 million hectares as per 2013-14 estimates)
The crop whose production is the largest in IndiaSugarcane (348.4 million tonnes as per 2013-14 estimates)
The cereal crop whose production is the largest in IndiaRice (106.3 million tonnes as per 2013-14 estimates)
The agricultural produce which has the highest percentage share of importsEdible Oil (about 68% of imports of food and allied products)
The agricultural produce which has the highest percentage share of exportsRice

Crops : India's Rank in the World

Feature Rank
Millets, Lemon & limes, Bananas, Ginger, Mangoes, Papayas, Jute, Castor Oil seed, Safflower oil seedFirst
Sugarcane, Wheat, Onion, Potatoes, Garlic, Rice, Tea, CottonseedSecond

Types of Irrigation

1. Surface Irrigation: Application of water by gravity flow to the surface of the field. 3 types of surface irrigation - Basin, Furrow and Border
a. Basin Irrigationb. Furrow Irrigationc. Border Irrigation
Flat areas of land are surrounded by low bunds to create basins which are then flooded by water.Small channels called furrows carry water down the land slope between the crop rows. Water infiltrates into the soil as it moves along the slope.Borders are long, sloping strips of land separated by bunds. Water flows down the slope of the border, guided by the bunds on either side.
Rice is commonly irrigated this way.Row crops such as maize, sunflower, sugarcane, soybean and also crops which would get damaged by basin irrigation like tomatoes, vegetables, potatoes, beans; fruit trees such as citrus, grape etc.Close growing crops such as pasture or alfalfa
2. Sprinkler Irrigation: Water is pumped through a pipe system and then sprayed onto the crops through rotating sprinkler heads. Not suitable for delicate crops such as lettuce.
3. Drip Irrigation: Water is conveyed under pressure through a pipe system to the fields, where it drips slowly onto the soil through emitters or drippers which are located close to the plants. Suitable for all row crops but only high value crops are irrigated this way because of cost involved.