Facts and Number of Bones, Types of Bones and Joints

Important Facts about Bones

  • The study of bones is called Osteology.
  • A new born has about 300 bones in its body, many of which fuse later in life to form 206 bones in an adult.
  • Bones are chiefly made up of Calcium Phosphate and Collagen (a protein).
  • The longest bone in the human body is the Femur or the thigh bone.
  • The smallest bone is located in the ear and known as the stapes.
  • Bones are attached to bones by tough, fibrous tissues known as ligaments
  • The flexible tissue in the interior of bones is known as the bone marrow. Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.
  • Hyoid bone located at the base of the tongue is the only bone not attached to any other bone in the body.
  • The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, ear, rib cage, vertebral column, sternum and the hyoid bone. (total 80 bones).
  • The appendicular skeleton consists of all other bones. (total 126 bones).
  • Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density which can lead to an increased risk of fracture.
  • Rickets is a disease of the bones in children who develop soft bones due to deficiency of Vitamin D.
  • Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.
  • Gout is a type of arthritis where swelling and severe pain develops in joints, especially at the base of the big toe.
  • Calcium is an important nutrient for building bones and slowing the pace of bone loss. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium.

Types of Bones in Human Body

Long BoneUlna, Radius, Humerus, Femur, Tibia, Fibula
Short BoneWrist and ankle bones
Flat BoneSkull bones
Sesamoid BonePatella
Irregular BonePelvic bones, Bones of the spine

Types of Joints in Human Body

Ball and Socket JointShoulder and Hips
Hinge JointKnee and Elbow
Pivot JointNeck
Ellipsoidal JointBase of the Index finger
Saddle JointBase of the Thumb
Gliding JointWrists and Ankles


Number of Bones in Human Body

Groups of Bones in Human Body

GroupNumber of BonesTotal
Skull 22
Vertebral Column
[Cervical Vertebrae - 7 ; Thoracic/dorsal Vertebrae - 12
Lumbar Vertebrae - 5 ; Sacral Vertebrae - 1 ; Coccygeal Vertebrae - 1
Ribs 24
Finger bones or Phalanges14 (in each hand)28
Toe bones or Phalanges14 (in each foot)28
Wrist bones or Carpals8 (in each wrist)16
Ankle bones or Tarsals7 (in each ankle)14
Total number of bones in groups184

Single Bones in Human Body

Total number of single bones - 2

Pairs of Bones in Human Body

1. ScapulaShoulder6. FibulaLeg
2. ClavicleCollar7. HumerusUpper arm
3. PatellaKnee8. UlnaLower arm
4. FemurThigh9. RadiusLower arm
5. TibiaLeg10. Pelvic boneHips
Total number of pairs of bones - 20

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