12 Most Commonly used Medicines

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Important Medicines and their Uses
1. Paracetamol: Also known as Acetaminophen, the medicine is commonly used for treatment of fever and as a painkiller.
2. Salbutomol: It is also known as albuterol. It is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs and is commonly used for treatment of asthma.
3. Cetirizine: It is an antihistamine used to treat allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and cold and allergy symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, or runny nose.
4. Oseltamivir: It is an antiviral medicine used to treat influenza. The medicine was in news during the spread of Swine flu as it was the most sought after drug.
5. Chloroquine: The drug commonly used to prevent and treat malaria. Quinine, used to treat malaria is an extract from the bark of Cinchona tree. Chloroquine, a synthetic analogue of quinine has the same mechanism of action.
6. Diclofenac and Aceclofenac: Both are anti-inflammatory medicines commonly prescribed to human beings and animals. However, vultures which feed on dead bodies of animals which were given these medicines suffer from fatal illnesses. This has caused a reduction in their population. As a result both the medicines have been banned for veterinary use in India
7. Modafinil: The drug which is popularly known as 'Go Pill' is used by pilots to enhance their performance in long duration operations to overcome sleep deprivation and resultant fatigue.
8. Nimusulide: It is a pain-killer which is banned in many countries due to its liver toxicity. In India it is banned to be prescribed for children.
9. Metformin: It is a first line medication used for the treatment of Type-II Diabetes. The medicine has been in news in 2023 for its ability to delay Alzheimer's disease, slow down aging and reduce weight, however, these are still in the nascent stages.
10. Omeprazole, Pantoprazole etc.: Both belong to the class of medicines known as Proton Pump Inhibitors and are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.
11. Albendazole: It is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic medicine. It is used for the treatment of a variety of intestinal parasite infections, including pinworm infection, hookworm infection etc. It is also distributed to children in India on National Deworming Day observed every year on 10 February.
12. Sildenafil Citrate: The drug is used for the treatment of certain sexual problems and is commonly sold under the brand name 'Viagra'.
Some other drugs/chemicals to be remembered
1. Endosulfan: It was a common pesticide which was banned in many western countries including India. It kills harmless insects thus affecting the food of the birds and the environment in general. Its use has also been linked to several deaths and deformities in Kerala, where it was widely used in cashew plantations.
2. Oxytocin: Oxytocin is a natural hormone that manages key aspects of the female and male reproductive systems, including labor and delivery and lactation. However, oxytocin injections are usually given to cows and buffaloes to enhance their milk output. To prevent its misuse, the Govt of India has banned private companies from manufacturing the drug.

Note : The information is intended to be used as general knowledge for competitive examinations and not to be taken as any kind of medical advice.



Select the right answer

1. Which of the following is commonly known as Go-Pill and used as a stimulant by Air Force pilots?

2. Which of the following is commonly prescribed for treatment of asthma?

3. Which of the following is used for treatment of diabetes?

4. Chloroquine is a medicine prescribed for the treatment of which disease?

5. Which of the following is administered to animals to enhance their milk production?

6. Which of the following is also known as Acetaminophen?

7. Which of the following medicines has been banned for use in children?

8. Which of the following medicines is given to children on National Deworming Day?